A DNA polymerase is a member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of DNA molecules from nucleoside triphosphates, the molecular precursors of DNA.These enzymes are essential for DNA replication and usually work in groups to create two identical DNA duplexes from a single original DNA duplex. During this process, DNA polymerase reads the existing DNA strands to create two new. Another DNA polymerase isolated from Theimus aquaticus has been described (Chien et al., 1976; Kaledin et al., 1980).This enzyme has an approximate molecular weight of 62,000-68,000, a specific activity between 500 and 5200 U/mg, a temperature optimum of 70-80 ° C, and a pH optimum in the range of 7.8 to 8.3 (see Table 2).Optimal activity is obtained with 60-200 mM KCl and 10 mM Mg 2 + DNA polymerase adds new free nucleotides to the 3' end of the newly-forming strand, elongating it in a 5' to 3' direction. However, DNA polymerase cannot begin the formation of this new chain on its own and can only add nucleotides to a pre-existing 3′-OH group. A primer is therefore needed, at which nucleotides can be added DNA Polymerase is key to getting from one cell to two replications based on that originating cell's resources. Deoxyribonucleic acid (e.g., your DNA) is the key to building every living organism, but it originates in the previously existent cell, the mother cell, if you will Structure of DNA polymerase. The structure of DNA polymerase is highly conserved, meaning their catalytic subunits vary very little from one species to another, irrespective of how their domains.
1) DNA Polymerases-I. DNA polymerase I in prokaryotes is far from irrelevant, however.This enzyme serves as a host of Clean-up functions during replication, recombination, and repair.. These special functions are enhanced by an additional enzymatic activity of DNA polymerase I, a 5'->3' exonuclease activity DNA polymerase is an essential component for PCR due to its key role in synthesizing new DNA strands. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of this enzyme and the subsequent development of advanced DNA polymerases is critical for adapting the power of PCR for a wide range of biological applications Φ29 DNA polymerase is an enzyme from the bacteriophage Φ29.It is being increasingly used in molecular biology for multiple displacement DNA amplification procedures, and has a number of features that make it particularly suitable for this application DNA är en nukleinsyra som är uppbyggd av två långa kedjor av nukleotider. Varje nukleotid kan sägas bestå av tre delar: en molekyl av sockerarten deoxiribos, en fosfatgrupp och en av de fyra kvävebaserna adenin (A), guanin (G), cytosin (C) och tymin (T). Kvävebasernas ordningsföljd i DNA-molekylen bestämmer uppbyggnaden av kroppens alla proteiner DNA Polymerase Function When DNA polymerase synthesizes DNA from deoxyribonucleotides, nucleotides are paired to bases on each strand of the original DNA molecule to create DNA copies. The pairings are always the same, with cytosine together with guanine, and thymine together with adenine. DNA polymerases cannot form new chains, they can only.
Because of that, the DNA polymerase always required a short-single stranded DNA/RNA molecule- called primer for starting the synthesise, which is not required for RNA polymerase. The DNA polymerase only inserted nucleotides once it finds the free 3' OH end facilitated by the primer-synthesise by the primase enzyme . This RNA oligonucleotide is then intramolecularly transferred to the active site of DNA pol α responsible for DNA synthesis, functioning as a primer for subsequent incorporation of dNTPs
Enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis by addition of deoxyribonucleotide units to a DNA chain using DNA as a template. They can also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair DNA polymerase is a complex enzyme. It is an enzyme that carries out polymerization of DNA, as it is clear from its name DNA polymerase. It is mainly of three types in prokaryotes viz; pol-I, pol-II and pol-III and in eukaryotes, it is of five kinds viz; pol-α, pol-β, pol-Ƴ, Pol- δ and pol-Ɛ DNA Polymerase. DNA polymerase enzyme starts its function during replication of DNA, at the step of arranging the relevant nucleotides to form hydrogen bonds between corresponding nitrogenous bases of the existing and new DNA strands HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase is supplied with a streamlined, optimized protocol for fast and easy PCR setup. HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase is activated by a 15-minute, 95°C incubation step, which can easily be incorporated into existing thermal cycling programs RNA Directed DNA Polymerase. Reverse transcriptase (RT) has many functions: RNA-dependent DNA polymerization, DNA polymerization from a single-stranded DNA intermediate, and RNAse H activity that degrades the RNA intermediates
DNA Polymerase III Holoenzyme. DNA polymerase III is a holoenzyme, which has two core enzymes (Pol III), each consisting of three subunits (α, ɛ and θ), a sliding clamp that has two beta subunits, and a clamp-loading complex which has multiple subunits (δ, τ, γ, ψ, and χ) Polymerase definition is - any of several enzymes that catalyze the formation of DNA or RNA from precursor substances in the presence of preexisting DNA or RNA acting as a template Main Difference - DNA Polymerase 1 vs 3. DNA polymerase 1 and 3 are two types of DNA polymerases involved in prokaryotic DNA replication.DNA polymerases assist the synthesis of a new DNA strand by assembling the nucleotides to the parent strand. Both DNA polymerase 1 and 3 possess replicative activity in the 5' to 3' direction
Taq DNA polymerase, isolated from Thermus aquaticus, is a thermostable DNA polymerase that catalyzes the primer-dependent incorporation of nucleotides into duplex DNA in the 5′→3′ direction in the presence of Mg 2+.It is the standard thermostable DNA polymerase used in PCR applications. Taq does not possess 3′→5′ exonuclease activity but has 5′→3′ exonuclease activity DNA Polymerase I. This is a type A or Family A polymerase enzyme that was initially isolated from E. coli and most abundantly found in E. coli.; Its main function is excision repair of DNA strands from the 3′-5′ direction to the 5′-3 direction, as an exonuclease
DNA polymerase: ( nū'klē-ō-tī'dĭl-trans'fĕr-ās'ĕz ), Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of transferring nucleotide residues (nucleotidyls) from nucleoside di- or triphosphates into dimer or polymer forms. Some nucleotidyltransferases bear specific names (for example, adenylyltransferases), trivial names indicating the linkage hydrolyzed in the. Definition noun A DNA polymerase involved in DNA replication in prokaryotes, is encoded by polB gene, and composed of 783 amino acids Supplement DNA polymerases are enzymes that assist in the replication of DNA. In prokaryotes, examples of these enzymes are DNA polymerases I, II, and III. The first known DNA polymerase is DNA polymerase I and was observed in E. coli A DNA polymerase is an enzyme (the suffix -ase is used to identify enzymes) that helps catalyze the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides into a DNA strand. DNA polymerases are best known for their feedback role in DNA replication, in which the polymerase reads an intact DNA strand as a template and uses it to synthesize the new strand. This process copies a piece of DNA Amplification of complex DNA up to 10kb. A 3.9 kb fragment of a-1-antitrypsin (AT-R3) gene (A), and a 7.0 kb (B), 9.0 kb (C) and 10.0 kb (D) fragment of human (ß-globin) HbG gene, were amplified using MyFi DNA Polymerase and similar DNA Polymerases from other suppliers Taq DNA Polymerase. Provided with Green and Colorless Reaction Buffers without MgCl2, and 25mM MgCl2. Green Buffer allows direct gel analysis after amplification. Enhanced performance over standard Taq DNA Polymerase
PrimeSTAR GXL polymerase is our most robust high-fidelity polymerase available for challenging targets (GC-rich sequences, excess template, long amplicons).It is a modified version of the PrimeSTAR HS enzyme that includes an elongation factor to provide unsurpassed processivity.. PrimeSTAR GXL DNA Polymerase provides efficient PCR amplification even for the toughest scenarios, including. DNA polymerase I is an enzyme that participates in the process of prokaryotic DNA replication. Discovered by Arthur Kornberg in 1956, it was the first known DNA polymerase. It was initially characterized in E. coli and is ubiquitous in prokaryotes. In E. coli and many other bacteria, the gene that encodes Pol I is known as polA.The E. coli form of the enzyme is composed of 928 amino acids, and. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed by chemist Kary Mullis in the 1980s, as a means to make many copies of DNA fragments. Scientists realized that thermostable (heat-stable) DNA polymerases would be needed for PCR to work efficiently GoTaq® G2 Flexi DNA Polymerase reliably amplifies a wide range of PCR templates and provides high-performing results due to improved manufacturing processes, increased reliability and consistency. GoTaq® G2 Flexi DNA Polymerase is supplied in a proprietary formulation containing 50% glycerol with buffers designed for enhanced amplification
T4 DNA Polymerase. High-fidelity polymerase useful for mutagenesis reactions, 3´-overhang removal and 5´-overhang fill-in reactions. M4211, M4215. DNA Polymerase I Large (Klenow) Fragment. DNA-dependent DNA polymerase that lacks the 5´→3´ exonuclease activity of intact E. coli DNA Polymerase I. M2201, M220 This page was last modified 08:43, 17 June 2019. This page has been accessed 23,669 times. User-added text is available under Proteopedia:Terms of Service and the CC. PCR Protocol for OneTaq® DNA Polymerase (M0480). Protocols.io also provides an interactive version of this protocol where you can discover and share optimizations with the research community.. Overview. PCR The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a powerful and sensitive technique for DNA amplification Phusion DNA Polymerase possesses 5´→ 3´ polymerase activity, 3´→ 5´ exonuclease activity and will generate blunt-ended products. Phusion DNA Polymerase is supplied with standard 5X Phusion HF Buffer, as well as 5X Phusion GC Buffer, which can be used for complex or GC-rich templates A chimeric form of Phi29 DNA Polymerase. 4BB™ QualiPhi ® DNA Polymerase is a novel, highly processive chimeric form of Phi29 DNA polymerase, expertly engineered for enhanced sensitivity and efficiency.. Phi29 DNA polymerase has been proven to be an extremely processive DNA polymerase (up to more than 70 kb per binding event), with extraordinary strand displacement capacity, coupled with 3.
Poorly processive, error-prone DNA polymerase involved in translesion repair and untargeted mutagenesis (PubMed:10488344, PubMed:10801133). Copies undamaged DNA at stalled replication forks, which arise in vivo from mismatched or misaligned primer ends. These misaligned primers can be extended by Pol IV. Exhibits no 3'-5' exonuclease (proofreading) activity (PubMed:10488344) Description; Overview: NovaTaq™ DNA Polymerase* is a premium quality, recombinant form of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase that is licensed for PCR. This thermostable enzyme is suitable for a wide range of PCR applications. To ensure the highest purity and reproducible perfomance, each preparation is extensively tested in a variety of quality control assays Bst 2.0 DNA Polymerase is an in silico designed homologue of Bacillus stearothermophilus DNA Polymerase I, Large Fragment (Bst DNA Polymerase, Large Fragment).Bst 2.0 DNA Polymerase contains 5´→3´ DNA polymerase activity and strong strand displacement activity but lacks 5´→3´ exonuclease activity.Bst 2.0 DNA Polymerase displays improved amplification speed, yield, salt tolerance and.
A wild type form of the high fidelity DNA polymerase Phi29 DNA polymerase. Phi29 DNA polymerase is an extremely processive DNA polymerase (up to more than 70 kb per binding event) with extraordinary strand displacement capacity, exhibiting 3' → 5' proofreading exonuclease activity, resulting in an exceptionally high synthesis fidelity DNA Polymerase III. Holoenzyme, dimer of the core polymerase. Adds DNA nucleotides on to the end of the 3' primer. Majority of DNA replication. Lowest concentration. DnaB Helicase. 6 identical subunits form a ring. Traverses along single-stranded DNA (the lagging strand) Taq-polymerase (ofte forkortet med Taq pol) er en termostabil DNA-polymerase navngivet efter den termofile bakterie Thermus aquaticus, fra hvilken den oprindeligt blev isoleret af Thomas D. Brock i 1965. Taq pol anvendes ofte i PCR.. T. aquaticus er en bakterie, der lever i varme kilder, hvorfor dens proteiner er termostabile. Heriblandt Taq-polymerasen, der blev identificeret som værende i. Briefly, the DNA samples were mixed with 0.5 mM deoxynucleotide triphosphate mix, 0.5 μM mosaic end adaptor B, and 1× Ampligase buffer and incubated in an annealing program (50°C, 1 min; 45°C, 10 min; ramp to 37°C at 0.1°C/s and hold). T4 DNA polymerase and Ampligase were added to the reaction and incubated at 37°C for 1 hour
DNA Polymerase I (Pol I) catalyzes the incorporation of dNTPs into double-stranded DNA in a 5'→3' direction that is complementary to the DNA or RNA template strand. It possesses 3'→5' exonuclease (proofreading) activity as well as 5'→3' exonuclease activity, making the enzyme useful for DNA end blunting and DNA labeling by nick translation Bst DNA Polymerase, Large Fragment is the portion of the Bacillus stearothermophilus DNA Polymerase protein that contains the 5´ → 3´ polymerase activity, but lacks 5´ →3´ exonuclease activity. Highlights. Isolated from a recombinant source; Sequencing through problematic secondary structure
• The Phusion™ High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase should be pipetted carefully and gently as the high glycerol content (50%) in the storage buffer may otherwise lead to pipetting errors. • Due to the nature of the Phusion™ High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase, the optimal reaction conditions may differ from PCR protocols for standard DNA polymerases. • Due to the high salt concentration in the. RTX is a reverse transcriptase evolved in vitro from the B family DNA polymerase KOD. Structural analyses of RTX in complex with either a DNA duplex or an RNA-DNA hybrid and comparison with the apo, binary, and ternary complex structures of the original KOD polymerase shed light on how to engineer and alter substrate specificity of enzymes HotStarTaq Plus DNA Polymerase provides the unrivaled performance of HotStarTaq DNA Polymerase with a shortened activation time of just 5 minutes.. HotStarTaq Plus DNA Polymerase, a modified form of QIAGEN Taq DNA Polymerase, is supplied in an inactive state that has no polymerase activity at ambient temperatures. This prevents extension of nonspecifically annealed primers and primer dimers. EasyTaq ® DNA Polymerase is purified from E. coli expressing a cloned DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus. The enzyme consists of a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 94 kDa. EasyTaq ® DNA Polymerase has 5′-3′ DNA polymerase activity and 5′-3′ exonuclease activity. It lacks 3′-5′ exonuclease activity
DNA Polymerase Proofreading Return to PCR qPCR and Amplification Technologies. A 3´→ 5´ proofreading exonuclease domain is intrinsic to most DNA polymerases. It allows the enzyme to check each nucleotide during DNA synthesis and excise mismatched nucleotides in the 3´ to 5´ direction Interaction of PCNA with DNA polymerase is vital to efficient and processive DNA synthesis. PCNA being a homotrimeric ring possesses three hydrophobic pockets mostly involved in an interaction with its binding partners. PCNA interacting proteins contain a short sequence of eight amino acids, popularly coined as PIP motif, which snuggly fits into the hydrophobic pocket of PCNA to stabilize the. Taq Polymerase for Robust PCR with and Direct-to-Gel Convenience. GoTaq® DNA Polymerase is a proprietary formulation of Taq polymerase that gives robust amplification equal to and, in some cases, superior to that of standard Taq.. The 5X GoTaq® Green and Colorless Reaction Buffers supplied with GoTaq® DNA Polymerase contain MgCl 2 at a concentration of 7.5mM for a final concentration of 1. Diagram of DNA polymerase extending a DNA strand and proof-reading. Källa: Eget arbete: Skapare: Madprime: Andra versioner: Derivative works of this file: DNA polymerase-FR.svg DNA polymerase ar.svg: Licensiering. I, Madprime, upphovsrättsinnehavaren av detta verk, publicerar härmed det under följande licenser:.
DNA-sekvensering är den process som används för att med biokemiska metoder bestämma ordningen av kvävebaserna (nukleotiderna) adenin, guanin, cytosin och tymin i DNA.DNA-sekvensen utgör den ärvda genetiska informationen i celler och bestämning är därför viktig både i grundläggande forskning kring organismer inom det fält av bio som kallas systematisk biologi och i. DNA polymerase III is the main family C polymerase involved in E.coli DNA replication. Polymerase III is made up of the clamp-loading complex, the beta sliding clamp processivity factor and the. DNA-polymerasar er enzym som katalyserer laginga av ein ny DNA-tråd som er komplementær til ein annan DNA-tråd nytta som mal.I alle greiner av livet vert DNA-polymerasar nytta under DNA-replikasjon, der genomet til ein organisme vert kopiert. DNA-polymerasar verkar i lag med andre protein, som helikasar.Komplekset med DNA-polymerasen og dei andre proteina vert kalla replisom DNA Polymerase Selection Chart. The following table lists properties that should be considered when choosing a polymerase. Since these properties can depend on reaction conditions, the primary references should be consulted prior to use in a given application Prokaryotes contain DNA polymerase I to V. Pol I and Pol III are the two types of DNA polymerases that are responsible for the 80% of DNA replication. Eukaryotes contain polymerases α, β, λ, γ, σ, μ, δ, ε, η, ι, κ, ζ, θ, and Rev1. Retroviruses like RNA viruses use reverse transcriptase to synthesize DNA from an RNA template
Other articles where DNA polymerase is discussed: heredity: DNA replication: replication, a complex enzyme called DNA polymerase moves along the DNA molecule, pairing nucleotides on each template strand with free complementary nucleotides. Because of the antiparallel nature of the DNA strands, new strand synthesis is different on each template DNA polymerase, more specifically, is involved in the process of reading and adding nucleotides to the DNA strand so a complimentary stand can be made. During the DNA replication process DNA polymerase puts new nucleotides on the 3' end of the DNA Strand. Not only does DNA polymerase add nucleotides to a DNA strand it can also act somewhat as. Here, we show that single DNA mols. can be sequenced by monitoring the elec. conductance of a phi29 DNA polymerase as it incorporates unlabeled nucleotides into a template strand of DNA. The conductance of the polymerase is measured by attaching it to a protein transistor that consists of an antibody mol. (IgG) bound to two gold nanoparticles, which are in turn connected to source and drain. Polymerase definition, any of several enzymes that catalyze the formation of a long-chain molecule by linking smaller molecular units, as nucleotides with nucleic acids. See more phi29 DNA Polymerase Catalog Number EP0091, EP0092, EP0094 Pub. No. MAN0012018 Rev. D.00 Product description phi29 DNA Polymerase is a highly processive polymerase (up to more than 70 kb) featuring strong strand displacement activity which allow
DNA polymerase III cannot add free nucleotides to these strands until primers have been added by the enzyme primase. There is also a DNA polymerase I that proofreads the newly synthesized DNA strands to make sure the appropriate nucleotides were added One unit of DNA polymerase activity is conventionally defined as the amount of enzyme that will incorporate 10 nmol of nucleotides during a 30-min incubation Residues 324-928 constitute the Klenow fragment. [More information is available at EcoGene: EG10746]. DNA Polymerase I (Pol I) is a multifunctional enzyme that combines a DNA polymerase activity, a 5' to 3' exonuclease activity and a 3' to 5' proofreading exonuclease activity. [More information is available at EcoCyc: EG10746] Protein of the DNA-directed RNA polymerase complexes, which catalyze RNA synthesis the by addition of ribonucleotide units to a RNA chain using DNA as a template. They can initiate a chain de novo. Prokaryotes have a single enzyme for the three RNA types that is subject to stringent regulatory mechanisms
. DNA polymerase I is important for its ability to edit out unpaired bases at the end of growing strands. Retroviruses possess a unique DNA polymerase, i.e. reverse transcriptase, which uses RNA template to synthesize DNA Structure of DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment bound to duplex DNA. Science. 1993 Apr 16;260(5106):352-5. PMID:8469987 ↑ Friedman AM, Fischmann TO, Steitz TA. Crystal structure of lac repressor core tetramer and its implications for DNA looping. Science. 1995 Jun 23;268(5218):1721-7. PMID:779259 Bst DNA Polymerase, exonuclease minus, is a 67 kDa Bacillus stearothermophilus DNA Polymerase protein with a 5'-3' polymerase activity, strand displacement activity, and reverse transcription activity. There is no detectable 3'-5' exonuclease activity. The concentration is 10 U/ul DNA polymerase beta. Idriss HT(1), Al-Assar O, Wilson SH. Author information: (1)Laboratory of Structural Biology, NIEHS/NIH, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, NC 29907, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org Wang he Hello ! I am trying to find out Unit of my DNA POLYMERASE too. Do you by any chance have full text of the paper you mentioned , Fluorescence-based DNA polymerase assay by Tveit and Kristensen
Donate here: http://www.aklectures.com/donate.php Website video link: http://www.aklectures.com/lecture/dna-polymerase-and-catalysis-of-phosphodiester-bond F.. KOD Hot Start DNA Polymerase* is a premixed complex of KOD DNA Polymerase and two monoclonal antibodies that inhibit the DNA polymerase and 3'→5' exonuclease activities at ambient temperatures (Mizuguchi 1999). KOD Hot Start amplifies genomic DNA templates up to 21 kb including GC-rich genes for PCR applications
ACCUZYME is a thermostable DNA polymerase possessing 5'-3' and 3'-5' proofreading exonuclease activities. ACCUZYME provides high-fidelity for your PCR, resulting in blunt-ended amplicons of up to 5kb in length DNA polymerase can't go backwards and fill in that spot. It only works in the 3' to 5' direction. So at this point, it's basically run out of track Application AccuTaq ™ LA DNA Polymerase is utilized to amplify DNA sequences including genomic targets larger than 20 kb, as a result of a mixture of high quality Taq polymerase with a proofreading polymerase. Produce long DNA amplicons for: • Mutation analysis • Cloning genes • DNA sequencing • cDNA library generation. Features and Benefit A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides into a DNA strand. DNA polymerases are most well-known for their role in DNA replication, in which the.
FIREPol® DNA Polymerase Cat. No. Pack Size Conc. 01-01-0000S 100 U SAMPLE 5 U/µl 01-01-00500 500 U 5 U/µl 01-01-01000 1000 U 5 U/µl 01-01-02000 2000 U 5 U/µl For in vitro use only Description: FIREPol® is a highly processive, thermostable DNA polymerase. Due to its genetic modifications FIREPol® ha . Examples of this class of drugs are acyclovir (Soothelip, Zovirax), ganciclovir (Cymevene, Virgan), valganciclovir (Valtrex) and foscarnet (Foscavir) AccuPOL DNA Polymerase promotes specific and clear results on a variety of DNA targets. Here we have tested 6 different DNA target varying in both length; ranging from 200 bp to above 3.000 bp and in GC content; ranging from 30 - 65 % General information . The full process of DNA replication is comprised of the intricate and coordinated interplay of more than 20 proteins. In 1958, Arthur Kornberg and his colleagues separated DNA polymerase from E.Coli. DNA polymerase is the first known of the enzymes whose function is to promote the bond formation of the joining units that make up the DNA backbone
MangoTaq™ DNA Polymerase is a formulation of Taq DNA Polymerase that offers high-yield across a wide range of DNA concentrations.. MangoTaq DNA Polymerase possesses 5´-3´ exonuclease activity and leaves an ´A´ overhang, resulting in PCR product suitable for effective integration into TA cloning vectors > What are similarities between DNA polymerase and RNA polymerase? Short answer: Both make nucleic acid molecule copies. * DNA polymerase: Synthesize (replicate) whole DNA chromosomes, adding one nucleotide at a time to the 3′-end of a DNA strand.. Error-prone DNA polymerase specifically involved in DNA repair (PubMed:11013228, PubMed:11387224). Plays an important role in translesion synthesis, where the normal high-fidelity DNA polymerases cannot proceed and DNA synthesis stalls (PubMed:11013228, PubMed:11387224, PubMed:14630940, PubMed:15199127). Favors Hoogsteen base-pairing in the active site (PubMed:15254543) PrimeSTAR HS DNA Polymerase is a novel high-fidelity DNA polymerase that allows high-efficiency amplification of large DNA products (up to 8.5 kb for human genomic DNA; up to 22 kb for lambda DNA). Its excellent performance is achieved by superior proofreading ability due to a robust 3' → 5' exonuclease activity. The antibody-mediated hot-start (HS) feature provides improved specificity. DNA polymerase I was used frequently in the early days of recombinant DNA technology for radio-labelling DNA and synthesizing cDNA. However, other enzymes have proven to be more effective for these purposes, including a proteolytic fragment of DNA polymerase I called Klenow fragment and T4 DNA polymerase To dissect the effects of the nucleotide-binding and catalytic metal ions on DNA polymerase mechanisms for DNA repair and synthesis, aside from the chemical reaction, we investigate their roles in the conformational transitions between closed and open states and assembly/disassembly of the active site of polymerase beta/DNA complexes before and after the chemical reaction of nucleotide.